News from our World of Metals

Investing in Precious Metals: A Complete Guide. “What’s important is to find reputable companies to protect your investments.” finchannel.com • 6 min read
New sensor able to detect rare earths in acid mine waste. “a luminescent sensor that can detect terbium, one of the rarest of the rare earth elements, in complex environmental samples like acid mine waste” mining.com • 3 min read
Visualizing the Critical Metals in a Smartphone. “most smartphones can carry roughly 80% of the stable elements on the periodic table. But some of the vital metals to build these devices are considered at risk due to geological scarcity, geopolitical issues, and other factors.” elements.visualcapitalist.com • 2 min read
Afghanistan’s Mineral Resources Are a Lost Opportunity and a Threat. “Some reports estimate Afghanistan REE resources are among the largest on earth.” thediplomat.com • 6 min read
The Biggest Mining Companies in the World in 2021. Do you know your miners? Here are presented the world’s top mining companies by market capitalization as of June 22, 2021, and the metals they mine. elements.visualcapitalist.com • 3 min read
The US is digging into its tax toolkit to rebuild its rare earth industry. “a bipartisan bill introduced in the US Congress last week, which would provide tax credits for the domestic production of permanent rare earth magnets” qz.com • 3 min read
Ranked: Top 25 Nations Producing Battery Metals for the EV Supply Chain. "Batteries do not grow on trees—the raw materials for them, known as “battery metals”, have to be mined and refined." elements.visualcapitalist.com • 3 min read
Tokyo 2020: Olympic medals made from old smartphones, laptops. “There was a two-year national effort in Japan to collect enough recycled material to produce about 5,000 bronze, silver, and gold medals for the 2020 Tokyo Olympics.” dw.com • 3 min read
How to avoid catalytic converter theft: Tips on protecting your car as thieves target rare metals. “Since the pandemic started, thefts of catalytic converters have soared nationwide as shortages or rare metals caused a spike in prices that have made the devices a particularly enticing target.” usatoday.com • 2 min read
Burundi suspends rare-earth mining in row over riches. “One of those targeted runs the Gakara project, one of the world's richest deposits of rare earths” africanews.com • 2 min read
Can Reddit's silver "apes" beat the market? "The core of the movement is a Reddit community called Wall Street Silver, formed in January at the time WallStreetBets was marshalling an uprising of ordinary people against the financial elites, through coordinated buying of company shares." reuters.com • 7 min read
“Rio Tinto reported a 12% fall in quarterly iron ore shipments on Friday after storms affected its West Australian operations.” Agricultural commodities aren’t the only one affected by weather. Metal mining is also dependent on Mother Nature’s behaviour. www.mining.com • 2 min read
"This extremely rare metal is outperforming all commodities—and Bitcoin, too" fortune.com
“The US said this month it would work with allies to secure the minerals needed for electric vehicle batteries and process them domestically.” financialpost.com • 2 min read
“According to the German Mineral Resources Agency, (...), demand for germanium will grow by a massive 111%. For tantalum, growth is forecast at an even larger 416%, with other ICT elements such as yttrium seeing 659% growth.” investors-corner.bnpparibas-am.com • 5 min read
Reopening of the ring in London. “The London Metal Exchange’s trading ring, pictured in 2018, was closed in response to the Covid-19 pandemic” wsj.com • 2 min read
“Before delving into ways to invest in rare-earth elements, investors should remember that these metals are commodities, which means they're subject to the ups and downs in demand that economic cycles bring.” Good article by Matt Whittaker although it does not mention the possibility of physical investment. money.usnews.com • 5 min read
“Adding a heavy rare earth like dysprosium and sometimes terbium makes the magnet more temperature stable, and suitable for use in offshore wind turbines where maintenance costs are high.” By Mary Hui qz.com • 6 min read
“Tantalum is recognized both as a critical raw material and conflict mineral, and is found in specific high-performance capacitors used for circuit boards and LCD screens.” greenbiz.com • 6 min read
“a nanosecond ytterbium fiber system equipped with a galvanometric scanner to create strokes that combine surface relief with optical effects, creating nine basic colors” advancedsciencenews.com • 3 min read
“a fractionated erbium laser that causes a little bit of damage under the skin to then stimulate collagen production” wellandgood.com • 2 min read
“The resource, called Tellurium, is one of the rarest elements on Earth, and it will be recovered at Rio Tinto's Kennecott mine as a byproduct of copper smelting.” iheart.com • 1 min read
“the metal’s price has been on a tear, rising more than sixfold since early 2016, an increase that’s lifted it above the price of gold” washingtonpost.com • 3 min read
You already own gold and silver? You even have platinum and palladium? Now how about a fifth, a sixth or a seventh metal in your portfolio? At RWMM we have more than 20 metals that are worth more than silver. Start collecting them before inflation hit. visualcapitalist.com • 3 min read
“A partnership between Cody and Thomas Edison led to tungsten from Campo Bonito used directly for Edison’s incandescent electric lights.” tucson.com • 1 min read
“Bismuth (melting point 271.4°C) is melted into a block, sawed into the desired knife shape, carefully re-dipped to coat it in a profusion of crystal forms, and then laboriously filed sharp.” boingboing.net • 1 min read
“newer laser technology optimized for holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) provides significant benefits compared with an earlier system” urologytimes.com • 3 min read
Want to see what it is like to receive a package from RWMM? RWMM is featured on Spegtacular Youtube Channel! youtube.com • 19m27s
“We've taken a look at three global metals, their price drivers and outlook, with a focus on what key mining companies are saying about them” By Nick Hyett, CFA hl.co.uk • 8 min read
“Europe is 75 per cent dependent on imports for almost all metals and up to 100 per cent for some critical minerals.” By Kevin O'Sullivan irishtimes.com • 3 min read
“Iron, which is easily absorbed if you eat meat, but difficult to get from plants, is critical for anemia.” By Andy Corbleygoodnewsnetwork.org
“molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) consists of alternating layers rotated with respect to each other by 180 degrees and held together by weak van der Waals forces” phys.org • 5 min read
“Those unprecedented forms and structures could be very useful.” Enhancing Precious Metal Recovery From Electronic Waste technologynetworks.com • 3 min read
“In the past when the U.S. (and Japan) faced threats to the supply of rare earth minerals, there was a rush to develop alternatives. But once the threat passed and prices from China dropped, alternative sources lost their appeal.” By Willy Shih.forbes.com • 5 min read
“While the mining of rare earth metals is diversifying, 80% of refining still occurs in China. With the demand for rare earths projected to double by 2030, building both mining and refining capacity overseas may prove key in reducing reliance on China.” By Govind Bhutadaelements.visualcapitalist.com • 3 min read
“Vital Metals (ASX: VML) today announced the commencement of mining operations at its Nechalacho rare earths project in Northwest Territories” By Vladimir Basovkitco.com • 2 min read
"According to the US Geological Survey, China accounted for 58 percent of rare-earth production worldwide in 2020, down from around 90 percent some four years ago, as the US and Australia gradually boosted production." globaltimes.cn • 3 min read
“The scientists took tiny crystals of a substance called sodium lutetium fluoride, and introduced atoms of the rare-earth element terbium into these crystals” eurekalert.org • 3 min read
A Nevada Lithium Mine Kicks Off a New Era of US Extraction. “the nation’s largest-known lithium supply” By Maya L. Kapoor for Mother Jones motherjones.com • 9 min read
“Russian researchers analyzed the films that were made up of four elements: sulfur, molybdenum, hydrogen and carbon” azonano.com • 3 min read
“Osmium is a rare precious metal, however, since it can act as a catalyst, a very little amount is needed for reactions in the cancer cell, therefore it could be a sustainable treatment going forward”. eurekalert.org • 3 min read
“Issues that will be factored into the decision include the need for rare earth metals that are used in components of the F-35” news.clearancejobs.com • 4 min read
“The company will design a system of functionally-graded niobium-based alloys suitable for Additive Manufacturing that will be capable of sustaining high-temperature operation, thus increasing fuel efficiency” By Metal Additive Manufacturing magazine metal-am.com • 2 min read
Copper: Critical Today, Tomorrow, and Forever. "From gas-powered cars and electrical vehicles (EVs) to trains and airplanes, copper is an essential part of our daily commute." visualcapitalist.com • 3 min read
Zinc: The Essential, Sustainable, and Versatile Metal. "Zinc is the fourth most used metal in the world behind iron, aluminum, and copper" visualcapitalist.com • 3 min read
Russia develops instrument to search for precious metals on the Moon and Mars. “Once on the surface the device will be used to search for rare earth metals such as gold, silver and platinum, at depths of several tens of centimetres to a metre.” room.eu.com • 4 min read
New process to recycle polyolefinic plastics at low temperature. “They combined ruthenium, a metal in the platinum family, with cerium dioxide, used to polish glass, to produce a catalyst that caused the plastics to react at 473 Kelvin.” canplastics.com • 2 min read
Researchers use niobium, molybdenum to find heat-tolerant alloys for aircraft. “metals containing niobium silicide, which are promising materials that can withstand high temperatures and improve efficiency of gas turbines in power plants and aircraft” mining.com • 2 min read
Five minute fast-charge EVs on the way. “the nanoparticles are based on Germanium, a rare element which was the basis for early solid state electronics” goodwood.com • 1 min read
Tin Market Records Deficit in January to October 2020. “World Bureau of Metal Statistics announced that the tin market recorded a deficit of 18.7 kt during January to October 2020” steelguru.com • 1 min read
BARC Develops India's First Ruthenium 106 Plaque For Effective Eye Cancer Treatment. “The Plaque handling is very much Surgeon-friendly and the preliminary results are very satisfactory” swarajyamag.com • 2 min read
What Is Going On With Rare Earths Going Into Next Year? “Of the 17 rare earth elements, seven consistently trade above $1,000 per kilogram. Three are trading above the six-digit range. Gadolinium oxide is just a moonshot for mining operations. The two next-best rare earth elements to collect — praseodymium oxide and neodymium oxide — are worth roughly around $50,000 per kilogram.” outsiderclub.com • 8 min read
Essential Science: New atomic clock improves measuring time. "The MIT clock is based around 350 atoms of ytterbium, which is the most volatile rare-earth metal. It comes in the form of a soft, malleable silvery metal." digitaljournal.com • 1 min read
The latest magnesium studies pave the way for new biomedical materials. “Magnesium is the lightest metal that can be used in structural applications. Due to its mechanical, thermal and electrical properties as well as biodegradability and the controlled rate of corrosion, it sparks great interest in researchers dealing with biocompatible implants.” phys.org • 5 min read
Solar Panel Waste: The Dark Side of Clean Energy. The good news is : “cells based on nontoxic metals like tin or germanium are approaching the efficiency of the ones with lead.” discovermagazine.com • 5 min read
Best-Performing Metal of COVID-19 (It's Not Gold or Silver). “The price of gold has increased nearly 20% for the year. Meanwhile, silver has rallied over 30% higher. But there's one metal that has gone gangbusters throughout the crisis, with prices rocketing up 200% higher.” energyandcapital.com • 4 min read
Industrial metals prices performing well amid coronavirus. “the migration to a greener future, to less polluting technologies such as electric vehicles, hydrogen fuel and renewable technologies will boost demand for copper, nickel, silver and PGM’s, such as platinum and palladium.” agmetalminer.com • 3 min read
Soaring Metals Prices Signal Bets on Global Economic Recovery. “Prices for copper have risen to their highest level in almost eight years. Iron ore, the main ingredient of steel, is one of the best-performing assets in 2020. Other raw materials, such as aluminum and zinc, have added roughly 15% since the end of September and 40% or more since mid-May.” wsj.com
CRU: The rare earths 'basket problem' is intensifying. “This is the essence of the "basket problem", an issue which has plagued the rare earth mining sector in recent years” prnewswire.com • 3 min read

https://www.theepochtimes.com/china-targets-americas-rare-earth-vulnerability_3700741.html?utm_source=morningbriefnoe&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=mb-2021-02-18

https://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2021/02/china-targets-rare-earth-export-curbs-to-hobble-us-defense-industry/?comments=1

https://www.kitco.com/news/2020-12-19/The-fairest-rare-earth-element-of-them-all.html

https://www.sciencecodex.com/perfect-imperfection-electrode-defects-boost-resistive-memory-efficiency-661769

https://www.technologynetworks.com/tn/news/ph-sensitive-iridium-complexes-as-anticancer-compounds-342790

https://interestingengineering.com/nine-beautiful-crystals-you-can-grow-at-home

https://consumer.healthday.com/acute-aes-with-gadolinium-based-contrast-agents-low-in-cardiac-mri-2648613962.html

https://www.consumersafety.org/news/e-cigarette-lung-injury-tied-to-vape-device-component/

https://www.cnet.com/news/honeywell-fires-up-the-h1-its-second-generation-quantum-computer/

https://www.miningnewsnorth.com/story/2020/10/29/critical-minerals-alaska-2020/pebble-hosts-90-years-of-durable-rhenium/6512.html

https://investorintel.com/investorchannel-watchlist/investorchannels-rare-earths-watchlist-update-for-tuesday-october-27-2020-1605-est/

https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/10/27/how-the-united-states-handed-china-its-rare-earth-monopoly/

https://observer.com/2020/10/nasa-discover-asteroid-pysche-metal-10-quadrillion/

https://news.cornell.edu/stories/2020/10/using-microbes-scientists-aim-extract-rare-earth-elements

https://www.sciencealert.com/the-atmosphere-of-one-of-the-hottest-exoplanets-in-the-galaxy-is-full-of-metal

https://www.legalreader.com/precious-metals-fraud-scams-increase-with-precious-metals-prices/

https://www.miningnewsnorth.com/story/2020/10/16/news/ucore-ships-bokan-ree-sample-for-testing/6475.html

https://www.mining.com/how-some-of-our-common-metals-got-their-names/

https://www.azoquantum.com/News.aspx?newsID=7487

http://www.usfunds.com/investor-library/frank-talk/rare-earth-metals-get-the-presidential-treatment/#.X-oVKlVKhaQ

https://oilprice.com/Latest-Energy-News/World-News/Tightening-Supply-Pushes-Rhodium-Prices-To-All-Time-High.amp.html

https://www.spotlightmetal.com/lightmetal-alloys-spotlight-zinc-a-958802/

https://www.energylivenews.com/2020/09/08/tesla-signs-up-to-fair-cobalt-alliance-to-improve-human-footprint-of-battery-metal-mining/

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-tesla-manufacturing-berlin/move-aside-robots-tesla-bets-on-aluminium-casting-idUSKBN25Z1NK

https://www.theglobeandmail.com/business/article-can-the-wests-economies-ever-escape-chinas-magnetic-pull-the-story/ 

https://www.designnews.com/electronics/chemistry-tweak-makes-novel-material-better-suited-next-gen-electronics

https://www.sciencecodex.com/fefu-scientists-are-paving-way-future-tiny-electronics-and-gadgets-655226

https://www.thesudburystar.com/news/local-news/joint-mining-venture-to-explore-tungsten-property-near-espanola

https://www.miningweekly.com/article/imperial-field-crews-discover-new-areas-of-scandium-at-crater-lake-2020-08-14

https://phys.org/news/2020-08-tool-metal-based-magnetic-materials.html

https://phys.org/news/2020-08-tellurium-difference.html

https://investingnews.com/daily/resource-investing/critical-metals-investing/rare-earth-investing/ways-to-invest-in-rare-earths/

https://www.sciencetimes.com/articles/26950/20200819/protolabs-launches-3d-printed-cobalt-chrome-for-aerospace.htm

https://www.popularmechanics.com/science/a33348567/seawater-fuel-catalyst-ships/

https://www.foodsafetynews.com/2020/08/new-technology-creates-hard-metal-surfaces-that-kill-bacteria/

https://www.estevanmercury.ca/news/business-energy/rare-earth-processing-facility-announced-for-saskatchewan-1.24194693

https://scitechdaily.com/surprising-discovery-brings-scientists-a-step-closer-to-room-temperature-superconductivity/

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/31/science/alexandrian-glass-rome.html

https://agmetalminer.com/2020/07/30/u-s-aims-to-break-rare-earths-dependence-on-china-with-lynas-project/

https://www.kitco.com/news/2020-07-29/Scorecard-gold-is-not-the-real-winner-how-other-metals-ranked-this-year.html

https://www.washingtonpost.com/climate-environment/review-fast-tracked-for-nevada-vanadium-mine-1st-in-the-us/2020/07/23/4dcba4c6-cd17-11ea-99b0-8426e26d203b_story.html

https://www.grainews.ca/columns/the-importance-of-molybdenum/

https://www.electropages.com/blog/2020/03/could-bismuthene-offer-way-reduce-co2-emissions-future

https://world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/Australia-produces-first-batch-of-medical-isotope

https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-03-18/the-virus-fueled-run-on-zinc-pills-can-t-save-the-meal-from-rout

https://www.advancedsciencenews.com/using-microalgae-to-generate-3d-photoluminescent-microstructures/

https://www.mining.com/alliance-to-invest-145-million-in-magnesium-recycling-plant/

https://smallcaps.com.au/covid-19-global-rampage-causes-turmoil-mining-commodities

https://safehaven.com/commodities/commodities-other/Why-Stock-Prices-Are-Falling-More-Than-Commodities.html

https://www.forbes.com/sites/ericmack/2020/03/15/new-coronavirus-study-shows-how-long-hcov-19-can-live-on-different-surfaces/#70220232412f

https://www.basf.com/global/en/media/news-releases/2020/03/p-20-134.html

https://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2020/mar/2/domestic-mining-of-antimony-is-key-to-us-defense-a/

https://www.visualcapitalist.com/all-the-worlds-metals-and-minerals-in-one-visualization/

https://www.mining.com/china-restarts-rare-earth-capacity-after-coronavirus-closures-report/

https://nationalinterest.org/blog/buzz/trillions-stake-next-battle-asia-over-north-koreas-rare-earth-resources-120776

https://www.cityam.com/london-metal-exchange-under-pressure-to-investigate-nickel-market/

https://investorintel.com/sectors/technology-metals/technology-metals-intel/scandium-could-be-next-following-the-meteoric-rise-of-palladium-and-rhodium/

https://www.pv-magazine.com/2020/02/10/silicon-heterojunction-solar-cell-hits-23-5-efficiency-with-new-hole-selective-contact/

https://www.whatech.com/market-research/industrial/633724-urology-laser-market-to-reach-a-market-size-of-1-3-billion-by-2025

https://globalnews.ca/news/6515206/cat-bionic-legs/

https://www.proactiveinvestors.com.au/companies/news/912010/australian-mines-continues-to-focus-on-developing-the-sconi-cobalt-nickel-scandium-project-912010.html

https://business.financialpost.com/commodities/mining/canadian-rare-earths-metals-look-for-shot-in-the-arm-from-u-s-government-funds

https://www.mining.com/web/australias-crippling-drought-posing-bigger-risks-to-gold-mines/

https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-01-23/chinese-company-swoops-on-giant-stock-of-metals-coveted-by-trump

https://phys.org/news/2020-01-reliable-extremely-fast-quantum-germanium.html

https://www.firstpost.com/tech/science/nanoparticles-powered-by-light-aim-to-reduce-chemical-industrys-carbon-footprint-7898581.html

https://www.mining.com/havilah-finds-ree-at-flagship-copper-project-in-australia/

https://www.thenakedscientists.com/articles/questions/whats-future-electric-car-charging-spots

http://www.ecns.cn/news/2020-01-06/detail-ifzsiwze9786459.shtml

https://www.kitco.com/news/video/show/Outlook-2020/2656/2020-01-06/Why-these-exotic-metals-are-great-alternatives-to-gold#_48_INSTANCE_puYLh9Vd66QY_=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.kitco.com%2Fnews%2Fvideo%2Flatest%3Fshow%3DOutlook-2020

https://www.futurity.org/thin-films-barium-zirconium-sulfide-2241582/

https://www.indiatimes.com/technology/science-and-future/indian-scientists-have-created-a-special-ink-that-will-prevent-counterfeiting-of-currency-notes-documents-503023.html

https://www.miningnewsnorth.com/page/zirconium-hafnium-bound-beyond-nature/5766.html

https://www.advancedsciencenews.com/a-new-ceramic-coating-to-lower-aircraft-fuel-consumption/

https://phys.org/news/2019-11-economizing-iridium.html

https://www.miningnewsnorth.com/story/2019/12/13/news/army-probes-rare-earth-facility-funding/6103.html

https://www.forbes.com/sites/nancyolson/2019/11/22/pen-of-the-year-by-graf-von-faber-castell-new-for-2020/#27151274539a

https://thewest.com.au/business/mining/worker-runs-over-maintenance-truck-at-rio-tinto-brockman-4-mine-in-pilbara-ng-b881390582z

https://www.fenews.co.uk/press-releases/38598-one-in-two-think-vibranium-is-a-real-metal-can-you-answer-these-gcse-science-question

http://www.asahi.com/ajw/articles/AJ201911210045.html

http://ens-newswire.com/2019/11/18/rare-earth-elements-focus-of-u-s-australia-agreement/

https://www.visualcapitalist.com/prove-your-metal-top-10-strongest-metals-on-earth/

https://phys.org/news/2019-10-world-production-aluminum-scandium-nitride.html

https://theconversation.com/how-volcanoes-recycle-the-earths-crust-to-uncover-rare-metals-that-are-vital-to-green-technology-125159

https://www.watchtime.com/wristwatch-industry-news/watches/four-wheels-ulysse-nardin-unveils-new-executive-free-wheel-limited-editions

https://phys.org/news/2019-09-scientists-discovery-indium-oxide-transparent.html

https://newsvarsity.com/2019/09/14/automotive-magnesium-alloy-market-intense-competition-but-high-growth-extreme-valuation/

https://www.nanotechnologyworld.org/post/mipt-physicists-create-device-for-imitating-biological-memory

https://nevadacapitalnews.org/2019/09/01/mount-hope-molybdenum-mine-water-quality-control-permit-to-be-reconsidered/

https://www.esquireme.com/content/40216-hublot-creates-127000-watch-using-same-materials-found-in-satellites

https://www.mining.com/palladium-price-peaks-at-new-record-high-rhodium-roaring/

https://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2019-08-28/greenland-s-rare-earth-minerals-make-it-trump-s-treasure-island

https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-08-28/gordon-teal-s-germanium-passion-helped-build-the-digital-world

https://www.canadianmetalworking.com/canadianmetalworking/article/metalworking/titanium-is-king-when-it-comes-to-implants

https://eos.org/articles/the-mystery-of-the-moons-missing-metals

https://www.miningnewsnorth.com/story/2019/08/01/critical-minerals-alaska/rhenium-the-hot-superalloy-element/5748.html

https://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2019-08-28/the-world-s-most-precise-clock-may-run-on-lutetium-or-ytterbium

https://palisaderadio.com/chris-berry-demand-for-energy-metals-will-only-keep-rising/

https://www.engineering.com/ElectronicsDesign/ElectronicsDesignArticles/ArticleID/18175/Ultrathin-Layer-of-Rhenium-Is-the-New-Superconductor.aspx

https://www.engineerlive.com/content/future-rhenium

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/09/190905124512.htm

https://bodoalbrecht.com/2018/11/25/lets-talk-about-osmium/

https://www.miningnewsnorth.com/story/2018/11/02/in-depth/critical-minerals-alaska-rhenium/5472.html

https://www.miningnewsnorth.com/story/2018/11/02/in-depth/critical-minerals-alaska-rhenium/5472.html

https://www.visualcapitalist.com/300-years-element-discovery-99-seconds/

https://matmatch.com/blog/rhenium/

https://www.miningnewsnorth.com/story/2018/11/02/in-depth/critical-minerals-alaska-rhenium/5472.html

https://www.nanowerk.com/nanotechnology-news2/newsid=51284.php

https://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2018-08-14/battery-boom-spurs-quest-to-resurrect-world-war-ii-cobalt-mines

https://oilprice.com/Alternative-Energy/Renewable-Energy/IEA-The-World-Needs-More-Diverse-Cobalt-Sources.html

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/08/180809175057.htm

https://www.bbc.com/news/business-44732847

https://cen.acs.org/materials/electronic-materials/Ruthenium-rewire-computer-chips/96/web/2018/07

https://www.evolving-science.com/matter-energy/element-ruthenium-magnetic-ferromagnetic-00681

https://www.sciencedaily.com/news/matter_energy/materials_science/

https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/coltan-demand-grows-as-tantalum-applications-expand-899683676.html

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/05/180525123159.htm

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-05/uoca-asn050118.php

https://investingnews.com/daily/resource-investing/industrial-metals-investing/vanadium-investing/vanadium-prices-higher-steel-demand/?as=1&nameplate_category=Vanadium+Investing

http://palisade-research.com/nickels-fundamentals-are-better-than-ever-find-out-why-it-keeps-outperforming/

https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-12-11/rush-for-ruthenium-has-metal-soaring-375-percent-in-2017-chart

http://www.visualcapitalist.com/nickel-secret-driver-battery-revolution/

https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-08-23/obscure-metal-used-to-fight-crusaders-has-surged-67-in-a-month

http://www.kitco.com/news/video/show/Mines--Money---NYC/1592/2017-05-08/Is-Cobalt-The-New-Lithium---Disruptive-Discoveries-Editor

https://www.forbes.com/sites/jamesconca/2016/12/13/vanadium-flow-batteries-the-energy-storage-breakthrough-weve-needed/#33a0f1145bde

https://www.nist.gov/news-events/news/2016/11/nist-debuts-dual-atomic-clock-and-new-stability-record

http://www.kitco.com/commentaries/2015-09-29/Not-Enough-Gold-To-Pay-All-Holders-Of-Gold-Obligations.html

http://www.kitco.com/commentaries/2015-10-02/Get-Your-Physical-Silver-Dow-About-To-Crash-Like-October-1929.html

http://www.kitco.com/news/2015-10-02/Cobalt-Another-Unstoppable-Technology-Metal.html

http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/10/01/us-silver-collectors-idUSKCN0RU30220151001

http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-32749262